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“Background: The Institute of Cognitive Neurology (INECO) Frontal Screening (IFS) is a brief neuropsychological tool recently devised for the evaluation of executive dysfunction in neurodegenerative conditions. Objective: In this study we present a cross-cultural validation of the IFS for the Selleck DMXAA Portuguese population, provide normative
values from a healthy sample, determine how age and education affect performance, and inspect its clinical utility in the context of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A comparison with the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) was undertaken, and correlations with other well-established executive functions measures were examined. Methods: The normative sample included 204 participants varying widely in age (20-85 years) and education (3-21 years). The clinical sample (n = 21) was compared with a sample of age-and
education-matched controls (n = 21). Healthy participants completed the IFS and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). In addition to these, the patients (and matched controls) completed the FAB and a battery of other executive tests. SNX-5422 concentration Results: IFS scores were positively affected by education and MMSE, and negatively affected by age. Patients underperformed controls on the IFS, and correlations were found with the Clock Drawing Test, Stroop test, and the Zoo Map and Rule Shift Card tests of the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome. A cut-off of 17 optimally differentiated patients from controls. While 88% of the IFS sub-tests discriminated patients from controls, only 67% of the FAB sub-tests did so. Conclusion: Age and education should be taken into account when
interpreting performance on the IFS. The IFS is useful to detect executive dysfunction in DZNeP research buy AD, showing good discriminant and concurrent validities.”
“Background: Sequential hip fractures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Understanding of risk factors is important for secondary prevention. Although hip fractures have a multifactorial aetiology related to falls, it is unknown whether fracture management approach influences the risk of sequential hip fractures. Objectives: Our objective is to explore whether subsequent contralateral hip fractures are more common following femoral head replacement or salvage procedures for the treatment of hip fractures. Methods: Patients older than 50, admitted to a single regional trauma unit in Worcestershire between 2010 and 2012 were identified from the national database. 700 patients matched our inclusion criteria and case notes were reviewed. The male to female ratio was 1:3.3 and the mean age was 82.8 years (standard deviation: 8.9 years). Contralateral fractures were identified from admission X-rays. Risk factors were analysed based on patient demographics and data related to first hip fracture management.