In neurochemical studies, reduced glutamate and creatinine/phosph

In neurochemical studies, reduced glutamate and creatinine/phosphocreatinine concentrations in the anterior cingulate, and increased choline concentrations in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, were documented in pediatric depression. Summary Neurobiological research in pediatric depression suggests that neurobiological factors change during the course of development, and developmentally influenced neurobiological processes may become

disrupted during depressive episodes. Longitudinal studies that account for familial and clinical variability allude to this possibility, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical whereas cross-sectional studies that fail to account for developmental changes, gender differences, and family history produced inconsistent findings. These data also Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical indicate that early-onset depressive disorders may not necessarily result from the same etiological processes, and the specific subtype with a recurrent unipolar course is associated with neurobiological changes typically observed in adult unipolar depression. Temperament and personality Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Temperament is thought to have a genetic/biological basis, although experience and learning, particularly within the social context, also can influence its development and expression.209 The trait that is associated with most emotional disorders

has been given various labels by different theorists, including behavioral inhibition,210 harm ABT-737 avoidance,211 negative affectivity,212 neurotism,213 and trait anxiety,214 although the conceptual and empirical overlap among these constructs far outweighs the differences. Negative affectivity is the propensity to experience negative emotions, and it reflects sensitivity to negative stimuli, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical increased wariness, vigilance, physiological

arousal, and emotional distress. In contrast, positive affectivity is characterized by sensitivity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to reward cues, sociability, and adventurousness.212 Depression is characterized by high levels of negative affectivity and low levels of positive affectivity,215 and these features have also been found in depressed children.216 Edoxaban Elevated levels of behavioral inhibition have been observed in laboratory tasks with young offspring of depressed parents.217 Longitudinal studies have shown that children with inhibited, socially reticent, and easily upset temperament at age 3 had elevated rates of depressive disorders at age 21 than those who did not demonstrate these characteristics.218 Similarly, physicians’ ratings of behavioral apathy (ie, lack of alertness) at ages 6, 7, and 1 1 predicted adolescent mood disorders and chronic depression in middle adulthood.219 Difficult temperament, characterized by inflexibility, low positive mood, withdrawal, and poor concentration correlated with depressive symptoms both concurrently and prospectively in adolescents.220 The relation between temperament and depression may vary somewhat by age.

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