In this context, if the beneficial effect of lowering blood pressure on dementia is not as strong as for cardiovascular disease, a longer period of observation is needed to demonstrate, any significant beneficial effect. Table II. Major clinical trials of primary prevention against dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. AD, Alzheimer’s disease; Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ADAPT, Alzheimer’s Disease Antiinflammatory Prevention Trial; CI, confidence inten/al; HR, hazard ratio; HYVET-COG, Hypertension in the Very … Estrogen therapy among postmenopausal women has been linked to a considerably lower
risk of AD and dementia in numerous observational studies, but the large-scale, clinical trial of the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHI-MS) showed that estrogen therapy alone or in combination with progestin did not reduce incidence of probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI); instead, the active treatments with estrogen and estrogen plus progestin Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical were found to be associated
with a twofold increased risk for both dementia and MCI.178,179 It has been argued that in the WHI-MS hormone Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical replacement therapy was given 10 to 15 years after the menopause when the “window of critical time” for putative beneficial effects of estrogen therapy mayhave been missed.187 Other major clinical trials of primary prevention against dementia, such as those with NSAIDs and vitamin E supplementation, have so far failed to confirm any efficacy against dementia and AD (Table II), while more clinical trials (eg, use of cholesterol-lowering drugs and blood glucose Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical lowering drugs) are ongoing.188,189 The lack of success in most primary prevention trials underscores the need of new strategies
in future intervention studies. New strategies for primary prevention: a life-course approach and multidomain interventions The life-course approach considers 5-FU chemical structure biological, environmental, and psychosocial factors acting during early childhood, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical middle age, and late life as relevant for the development of dementia and AD. This approach seeks to identify the “time windows” when exposures exert the greatest effect on the development of disease and to determine whether concurrent exposures could have interactive effects over the lifespan.190 In this context, the risk of late-life dementia and AD is likely to be determined by accumulative effects or complex interactions of genetic, biological, Sclareol psychosocial, and environmental exposures experienced over the life course. For instance, the brain structural and functional reserve related to education and other psychosocial factors can be conceived as the sum of their lifetime input of education and related activities.191 In addition, the life-course approach model introduces the concept of “time windows” at exposure, which might be highly relevant for chronic disorders with a long time latent period such as AD.