al. applied a sensitive and precise metabolomics method based on HILIC-TOFMS to investigate metabolic changes . They were able to detect biochemical changes in the mesencephalon of transgenic mouse, specifically S100B, a Ca2+ binding protein. HILIC-TOFMS may help improve our understanding of the mechanism of action of S100B protein in the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical development of Parkinson’s disease. 4.2. Glutathione and Related Compounds Reduced glutathione (GSH) is a major intracellular nonprotein thiol that plays a vital role in protecting cells and tissues from CCI-779 chemical structure oxidative injury. It is a tripeptide composed of cysteine (Cys), glutamic acid, and glycine. GSH is present in all organs, particularly the liver. It is present in virtually all mammalian tissues. GSH plays an essential role in maintaining an intracellular redox environment that is critical for the function of cellular proteins. Under oxidative stress conditions, GSH is oxidized to glutathione disulfide (GSSG) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and/or bound to a protein. Therefore, the GSH to GSSG (oxidized GSH and protein-bound GSH) ratio is altered. RPLC can simultaneously detect GSH, other low-molecular-mass thiols and disulfides, but requires sample derivatization because non-derivatized GSH and
GSSG are highly polar compounds and thus difficult to determine. Dernovics et al. confirmed the potential Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) MS/MS for the identification of selenium metabolites, such as GSH conjugate, which is in the low intra scan dynamic range . Iwasaki et al. developed a highly sensitive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and accurate method that employs column-switching HILIC-MS for the determination of reduced and oxidized thiols . Representative chromatograms of serum samples are shown in Figure 1. They succeed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in measuring thiol compounds in mouse serum. Figure 1 Chromatograms of reduced and oxidized thiols
in mouse serum sample subjected to column-switching HILIC-MS. Adapted from reference . On the other hand, D’Agostino et al. developed an analytical method for thiols, which utilizes CE-MS . Husain et al. applied CE-TOFMS to quantitate cysteine deprivation in Entamoeba histolytica . The optimization of maleimide labeling in conjunction with online sample preconcentration allows for the simultaneous analysis of nanomolar levels of reduced thiols Ketanserin and free oxidized thiols. This method integrates both specific and nonspecific approaches toward sensitivity enhancement for the artifact-free quantification of labile plasma thiols without complicated sample handling. Plasma thiol redox status determination, together with untargeted metabolite profiling, offers a systemic approach for the elucidation of the causal role of dysregulated thiol metabolism in the etiology of human diseases. 4.3.