RESULTS In this work, a one-step
process uses aqueous ammonia with or without hydrogen peroxide; a proposed two-step process uses aqueous ammonia in the first step and hydrogen peroxide in the second step. In the two-step process, overall 89.5% lignin is removed. The pretreated biomass is followed by using cellulase and beta-glucosidase to convert cellulose and hemicellulose from the recovered solid to fermentable sugars. The conversion of cellulose to glucose is 90.2% and to xylose is 73.4%. Characterization data are obtained for the recovered solid using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for better understanding of the two-step process. CONCLUSION Results from the Selleckchem PFTα two-step process using aqueous ammonia and hydrogen peroxide separately are much better than those from the one-step process for removing lignin and for enhancing conversion to sugars by enzymatic hydrolysis. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Polycrystalline samples of galfenol Fe(1-x)Ga(x) (x=0.17-0.3) have been prepared and used in
a bilayer with lead zirconate titanate for studies on the magnetoelectric (ME) effect. The converse ME effect which is the magnetic response of the sample to an applied ac electric field has been investigated. Piezoelectric deformations due the electric field result in an induced magnetization JNJ-26481585 chemical structure in galfenol that is measured as a voltage U in a pick-up coil wound on the bilayer. A resonance enhancement in the magnitude of U is evident for bending oscillations and longitudinal acoustic oscillations in the bilayer. Data on U as a function of the strength and orientation of bias field H show a maximum in ME coupling strength for in-plane
component of H approximate to 250 Oe. The data have been find more analyzed in terms of H dependence of the magnetostriction for galfenol. The converse ME coupling is strong enough for use of the bilayer as a sensor of magnetic and electric fields. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3152953]“
“Background: Pediatric lung transplantation (LTx) remains a challenge for a highly selected group of patients. The requirements for immunosuppressive therapy and the associated risks must be weighed against the long-term prognosis of this operation. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed our experience after 53 lung and heart-lung transplantations (HLTx) in children.
Methods: All pediatric patients <18 years of age who underwent LTx (n = 37) and HLTX (n = 16) at our institution were included in this study. We analyzed indications for transplantation, survival rates and causes of death. Herein we assess pediatric-specific challenges in comparison to adults.
Results: Thirty-day mortality was 13.2%. Kaplan-Meier survival rates at 1, 3, 5 and 10 years were 69%, 64%, 44% and 39%, respectively. Main indications for transplantation were cystic fibrosis and congenital heart disease with Eisenmenger syndrome.