RUPP involves the restriction of the major arteries supplying the placenta, instigating placental ischemia and many of the signs of preeclampsia
observed in humans (reviewed in [50, 74]). Like humans, RUPP rats show an increase in circulating sFlt-1, and a reduction in VEGF and PlGF, accompanied by hypertension and endothelial and renal dysfunction [49, 51]. Chronic infusion of VEGF in RUPP animals led to a reduction in blood pressure, enhanced relaxation of conduit VX 809 arteries, and improved renal function, evidenced by an increase in GFR and ERPF . Placental overexpression of sFlt-1 is induced by hypoxia and is mediated by the transcription factor HIF-1 . VEGF expression is also induced in response to hypoxia, suggesting that ischemia would increase VEGF in addition to sFlt-1 and sustain the angiogenic balance. It has been shown, however, that the effect of hypoxia varies dependent on cell type, and that in ischemic trophoblast cells hypoxia promotes the expression of sFlt-1 significantly, resulting in an imbalance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors in preeclampsia . Further contributing to this imbalance is sEng, a co-receptor for TGF-β1 and -β3 commonly expressed by endothelial cells and placental trophoblasts, which
is increased in women with preeclampsia [22, 134]. Elevated levels of sEng have been detected in the circulation of women with preeclampsia up to three months before the onset of disease . TGF- β1 contributes to endothelium-dependent Rapamycin datasheet relaxation by activating eNOS . Circulating sEng produced by the placenta has been found to contribute to endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling, thereby reducing eNOS activity . In addition, levels of sEng and sFlt-1 are inversely correlated with NO formation
in women with preeclampsia, Olopatadine and these antiangiogenic factors appear to work synergistically to induce endothelial dysfunction [63, 122, 145]. Activation of the maternal immune system plays an important role in the development of preeclampsia (reviewed in [4, 120]). Excessive inflammation is central to this response and is believed to be a mediator of maternal endothelial dysfunction . Women with preeclampsia have increased activation of NF-kB, an important regulator of the immune response . Activation of the complement system and a range of immune cells including neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, NK cells, and T cells has also been noted in women with preeclampsia [53, 81, 121]. Elevated levels of many cytokines and chemokines have been identified in the maternal circulation at various stages of gestation, including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-2 [28, 55], IL-8, IL-10, IP-10, MCP-1 [11, 138], and IL-12 . Interestingly, recent research shows that in preeclamptic pregnancies, peripheral NK and T cells, although capable of producing VEGF, actually produce significantly less of this angiogenic factor .