The median geographical area was 52.5 ± 6.1 kilo-pixels on admission and increased to 73.9 ± 6 kilo-pixels with clinical improvement (Figure (Figure5)5) (p < 0.01). This increase in size of the image was seen with tidal volume held constant. As in non-mechanically ventilated patients with REPE, total vibration energy also decreased following therapy (Figure (Figure7)7) (p < 0.01). Figure 7 In mechanically ventilated CHF patients with radiographically evident pulmonary edema, geographical area (A) of vibration energy images increases and vibration energy (B) during maximal inspiration decreases after clinical improvement (* = P < ... Discussion In this initial exploratory study, we evaluated the visual Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical display of
respiratory sound patterns Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in patients with acute CHF exacerbation and after clinical improvement. Decreased geographical area of the vibration energy images were observed in CHF patients at presentation. With clinical improvement of CHF symptoms, the areas of these images increased. The Vemurafenib decrease in geographic area was more pronounced in the presence of REPE. In CHF patients with REPE, total lung vibration energy decreased with clinical improvement. The maldistribution of vibration energy of respiratory sounds in acute CHF exacerbations is likely produced by the distribution Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of pulmonary edema (which may or may not be radiographically
evident). The vibration energy image represents the relative distribution of vibration energy, not the absolute energy. A larger image indicates a more homogeneous distribution of vibration Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical intensity throughout the lung and a smaller image a more focal distribution. Because of how the vibration energy image is created, an increase in the size of the image after clinical improvement reflects a more homogeneous distribution of vibration
intensity with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical decrease in lung water. The lack of homogeneity of lung vibration intensity throughout the chest in the presence of acute CHF might be explained by several mechanisms. Gravity-driven maldistribution of pulmonary edema may play a role [9-13] and heterogeneity of narrowed airways may also contribute to the heterogeneity of lung vibration images [14-20]. Due to the effects of gravity on lung water in patient who are in a seated position, it is expected that pulmonary edema would have more pronounced effects Idoxuridine in the dependent lower lung regions causing vibration energy image to be smaller. This was the case in patients with pulmonary edema on erect chest radiographs (with or without mechanical ventilation). The reason for the decreased area (distribution of vibration) seen peripherally in CHF patients is likely due to decreased transmission of breath sounds to peripheral lung tissue in the presence of pulmonary edema. This would in turn result in a smaller image due to decreased homogeneity of vibration intensity (less vibration peripherally and increased centrally) [4,5].