We have presented in vivo, for the first time a highly detailed description of the early events following DNA vaccination and this has considerable implications for the rational development, manipulation and application of DNA vaccination. Our data is consistent with the following scenario. Injected DNA vaccines rapidly enter the peripheral blood from the injection site but also reach lymphoid tissues directly as free DNA via the afferent lymphatics. The relatively large molecular size of pDNA probably precludes it from flowing into the
conduits of LNs, and thereby LN resident DCs from sampling LEE011 datasheet it directly, but rather it may be taken up by cells in the subcapsular sinus that then migrate into deeper areas of the LN such as the DC and T cell-containing interfollicular Akt inhibitor and paracortical areas. pDNA and/or expressed Ag may then be transferred from these cells to CD11c+ DCs for presentation to naïve T cells. Concomitantly, bloodborne DNA reaches the bone marrow and spleen where it is taken up by CD11b+MHCIIlow cells (monocytes/myeloid DC precursors). The bone marrow may then act as a reservoir for cell-associated pDNA or its presence may induce the maturation and mobilisation of monocytes/myeloid DC precursors into the periphery.
The observation that naïve CD4 T cells in draining and distal LNs and spleen “see” Ag simultaneously, suggests that pMHC complexes are widely distributed and the rapid dissemination Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase of pDNA may be the reason for this. Modulators Although we were unable to precisely identify and definitively link the cells acquiring, expressing and presenting DNA-encoded Ag, due to the minute amounts of Ag involved and the rarity of these cells, they are clearly able to initiate DNA vaccine-induced immune responses. This work was supported by a Wellcome Trust
project grant to PG, CMR and TJM Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no financial conflict of interest. “
“Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the vaccine for protection against tuberculosis (TB), is currently given to most of the world’s infants as part of the WHO’s Expanded Program on Immunisation (EPI) . Clinical trials of BCG show variable efficacy (0–80%) against pulmonary tuberculosis in adults , but high efficacy in infants against the severe forms of childhood tuberculosis . Several new TB vaccines are being tested or are soon to be tested in clinical trials . Some of these would be given as booster vaccines following BCG vaccination, and others are genetically modified BCG vaccines. Biomarkers of protection are urgently required to help assess these new TB vaccines, as without them clinical trials will be lengthy and require very large numbers of study subjects . Studying immune responses to BCG vaccination in the UK, where BCG vaccination has been shown to provide 75% protection, gives us an opportunity to identify biomarkers of protection following successful vaccination against TB.