By means of the BLASTN program http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi,
the identity rate between the nucleotide sequences of CovRS from various GAS serotypes was determined to be at least 99%. Therefore, the construct containing an internal part of the covRS nucleotide sequence derived from M49 learn more serotype genome was used for insertional inactivation of covS in multiple serotypes. The resulting erythromycin resistant strains were analyzed by conventional PCR for verification of the inactivation of covS. As shown in Fig. 1B, the conventional PCR was performed with primer pairs 1/2, 1/3, and 4/2 and products with the expected fragment sizes were received (data not shown). As expected, primer combinations 1/3 and 4/2 did not give any fragments using WT chromosomal DNA as template (data not shown). Furthermore, to assure that transcription of covS does not occur in the inactivated strains, RT-PCR analyses were carried out. Selleck SAHA As shown in Fig. 1C, when using primers derived from covR and cDNA
as a template, both the wild type M49 strain and its correspondent mutant strain gave a band of 625 bp. However, PCR employing primers from covS, showed a signal with a size of 846 bp only when cDNA isolated from the M49 wild type, but not from the M49::covS mutant strain was used. To exclude the possibility of general growth defects in the mutants under the experimental MLN4924 supplier conditions tested we performed regular batch cultures and monitored the growth by optical density readings at OD600 nm in hourly intervals. Exemplary results for one WT/mutant pair from each serotype are shown in additional file 1. No general growth defects were observed for growth in THY and BHI (additional file 1). Contribution of CovS to biofim formation Apart from primary adherence to eukaryotic cells, GNA12 it is now evident that GAS can form biofilms on matrix protein-coated and uncoated surfaces . Our previous work investigating the contribution of different TCSs to biofilm phenotype formation suggested CovRS to be involved in biofilm formation in
GAS (unpublished observations). Work from Cho and Caparon has also suggested that CovRS activity is required for biofilm formation . Thus, we performed extensive biofilm studies with wild type strains from different serotype strains and their correspondent CovS mutant strains. Previously, Lembke et al. showed that GAS serotypes preferentially adhered to human matrix-protein-coated surfaces. For instance, collagen type I was described as the matrix protein supporting to the highest extent the primary adhesion of M18 GAS serotype. Fibronectin coating was reported to induce biofilm formation in M2 and M6 and even in the biofilm-negative serotype M49 . Based on these observations, collagen type I or fibronectin was used as a coating protein when M18 or M49, M2 and M6 biofilm phenotypes were studied, respectively. As shown in Fig.