25% of monophosphoryl lipid A as adjuvant [227] They reported hi

25% of monophosphoryl lipid A as adjuvant [227]. They reported higher anti-bFGF IgG titers and higher pulmonary metastasis inhibition in mice treated with monophosphoryl lipid A bFGF-loaded liposomes over cationic liposomes or a bFGF/Freund’s adjuvant mixture without

the toxicity associated with administration of free adjuvants. Selective depletion of tumor supporting cells represents another approach to cell-specific cancer therapy [228]. The tumor Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical environment is enriched in tumor supporting cells among the tumor-associated macrophages that constitute a predominant inflammatory population involved both in resistance to therapy and metastasis [228]. Dichloromethylenediphosphonate (DMDP) liposomes induced macrophage depletion after intravenous Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical injection in mice [229]. Intradermal injection of DMDP liposomes into the tissues surrounding melanoma or squamous cell carcinoma AZD9291 tumors led to a decrease in tumor-associated macrophages content and tumor rejection [230]. Ligand density was shown to influence both drug retention and target recognition. Zhang et al. demonstrated increase in liposome uptake in vitro as the ligand density was increased from 0% to 1, 3, and 5% demonstrating enhanced ligand recognition

[231]. However, increase of in vitro Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical drug release as a function of DSPE-PEG-RGD ligand moiety has been reported by others [232]. Moreover, Saul et al. evidenced increase of nonspecific uptake in vitro with ligand density [233]. Consistent with their results, lower tumor accumulation of NGR (Asparagine-Glycine-Arginine) vasculature targeted liposomes has been evidenced in vivo with liposomes Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical harboring 2.56% mole NGR-PEG-DSPE than 0.64% mole NGR-PEG-DSPE [234]. Altogether, these data suggest Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the use of the lowest targeting ligand density allowing target binding for effective anticancer therapy. 4. Liposomes for Combination Therapy The prevalence of drug resistance in cancer patients, both prior to treatment

and de novo [235, 236], fueled the application of drug combinations to treat cancer as an alternative to increased doses of chemotherapeutics associated with life threatening sideeffects [237–239]. Codelivery was well new illustrated in a study by Chen et al. [240]. Using LPH-NP (liposome-polycation-hyaluronic acid) nanoparticles targeted by postinsertion of DSPE-PEG-GC4 (scFv selected by phage display against ovarian tumors [241]), they codelivered 3 different siRNA and one miRNA and obtained a 80% decrease in tumor load after treatment. They simultaneously targeted proliferation pathways with Cmyc siRNA and miR34a miRNA [242, 243], apoptosis with MDM2 siRNA [244], and angiogenesis using VEGF siRNA [245].

WIC significantly correlated (peak r = 0 76) with the strength of

WIC significantly correlated (peak r = 0.76) with the strength of rsFC in the precuneus, insula, caudate, putamen, middle cingulate gyrus, and precentral gyrus (P < 0.05 Table ​Table2D,2D, Fig. ​Fig.4).4). Table ​Table2D2D summarizes the results with the corresponding peak clusters. Figure 2 Comparing anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-seeded resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in smokers during the abstinent condition to that of nonsmokers. Smokers showed greater rsFC in the precuneus, caudate, putamen, superior frontal gyrus, middle ... Figure 3 Areas of increased resting-state functional connectivity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (rsFC) during withdrawal. To identify changes in

rsFC associated with nicotine withdrawal, paired t test was implemented between the anterior Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cingulate cortex (ACC)-seeded rsFC maps for the abstinent … Figure 4 Areas where resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in the abstinent state correlates with the intensity of Withdrawal-Induced Craving. Highly correlated areas (shown in red) included: the precuneus, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical insula, caudate, putamen, middle cingulate gyrus, … Discussion Addiction researchers have long hypothesized that PD is attributable to the development of neural adaptations. By employing a new survey measure of PD, (DiFranza et al. 2011) we were able to demonstrate

that the progressive development of PD is associated with decreasing FA in the ACb (r = −0.68), increasing density of white matter tracts between the ACb and white matter approaching the Fulvestrant precuneus (r = 0.75), and decreasing density of white matter tracts between the ACb and the frontal lobe (r = −0.86). (Huang et al. 2013) The density of tracts between the ACb Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and white matter approaching the precuneus also correlated with scores on the HONC and the FTND. (Huang et al. 2013) These observations suggested that neural adaptations in the ACC-precuneus circuit might play a key role in the development of PD. Despite the small sample

size, our results using two different methods (ICA and ACC-seed based rsFC analysis) were highly consistent. We found that 11 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical h into withdrawal, abstinent smokers showed increased rsFC in many pathways as compared to the satiated condition (Table ​(Table2B),2B), and that rsFC in smokers in withdrawal was greater than that of nonsmoking controls. Our analysis identified several pathways connecting Tolmetin to the ACC in which rsFC was significantly correlated with the intensity of WIC (Table ​(Table2D,2D, Fig. ​Fig.4).4). These included pathways involving the precuneus, insula, caudate, putamen, middle cingulate gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and left post central gyrus. While we studied correlates of withdrawal-induced craving in the absence of cues, others have studied correlates of cue-induced craving. Cue-induced craving has been shown to correlate with activity in the ACC, precuneus, precentral gyrus, and postcentral gyrus. (McClernon et al. 2005; Culbertson et al.

(Total time 29 5minutes and a range of 15–50minutes) This time bu

(Total time 29.5minutes and a range of 15–50minutes) This time burden excludes the time taken for double checking the records or data entry in the registry. Patient characteristics and injury mechanism Table2 gives demographic details and distribution of injury severity scores (ISS). Mean age of the victims were 27years (range: 1–89years) and males represented

a higher proportion of recorded cases in all age groups (n=394; 72.6%). The most common mechanisms of injury were fall (37%), motor vehicle crash (33%), and gunshot injuries (7%). Miscellaneous injuries (16%) included sports injuries, assault with blunt object, bites and occupational injuries. Table 2 Demographic details Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of captured cases in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical KITR according to ISS Injury severity and survival analysis Many patients presented with multiple injuries located in more than one anatomical region; therefore 1155 injuries were recorded in KITR from 542 cases. The most common injuries included head, face and upper extremity injuries (Figure3). Figure 3 Frequency of injuries according to anatomical region* (N=1155). * Region according to Abbreviated Injury Scale. As shown in Table2, 82% of the patients in our sample had an Injury Severity Score of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ≤9 categorized as mild, 9% had ISS: 9–15 classified

as moderate injuries, 7% had ISS between 16–25, and only 2% had ISS of >25 representing critical injuries. 2.6% of patients had a probability of survival of less than 50% (Table3). Eight patients (1.47%) died; five of those who died had a probability of survival of <50%. Disability at the time of discharge Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was recorded as per clinicians’ assessment

in the medical charts. More than half of the patients (n=287) had no disability at the time of discharge from the hospital, 245 (45.2%) had temporary disability, and 10 (1.84%) had permanent disability at the time of discharge. Table 3 Summary of patient outcomes (n=542) from pilot test of KITR Quality indicators The registry was capable of generating quality indicators, such as pre-hospital delay, ED length of stay, length Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of stay in hospital, disposition from ED as well as predicted and actual survival. Although pre-hospital time in 81% of cases was less than 4hours (range: 10minutes to 28hours), the large variability of pre-hospital time can be attributed to inter-facility transfers. Over 80% of patients were either transferred to in-patient units or discharged from the ED in≤click here 8hours. already Discussion This paper describes the three main steps for trauma registry implementation in a developing country; a- the process of development of the registry; b- affordability of its development and implementation and c- the challenges of the implementation of the software. The team of trauma experts and software developers took almost 2 years with a direct cost of USD: 9,600 to develop a functional trauma registry. The most critical test of the success of the effort was in the implementation of the registry in a real hospital based patient care scenario.

Our study confirms a low rate of occult cancer in patients with H

Our study confirms a low rate of occult cancer in patients with HGD, making endoscopic therapy an attractive alternative to surgery. Footnotes No potential conflict of interest.
The incidence of obesity is increasing worldwide and it has affected a large proportion of population. In Western world, one third of the population is obese and two thirds are overweight and obese (1). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Epidemiological

studies showed that obesity is associated with many cancers including colon cancer (2). Obesity is estimated to be responsible for about 30% of colon cancer incidence (3). Recent studies have also shown that obesity leads to poor BI 2536 supplier prognosis of colon cancer (4)-(6). However, the mechanism for obesity-associated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical poorer prognosis of colon cancer is not known. As the activation of PI3K/Akt signal pathway increases the resistance of several cancer cell lines such ovarian, lung cancer to chemotherapeutic drugs (7),(8), it

is possible that PI3K/Akt may also play a role in the poor prognosis of obesity-associated colon cancer. Many altered factors in obesity are known to activate PI3K/Akt pathway including increased blood levels of insulin, Insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α and decreased blood level of adiponectin (9),(10). Thus, it is possible that these factors can activate PI3K/Akt Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical pathway which in turn increases Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the resistance to chemotherapy in obesity-associated colon cancer (11). Increased insulin in obesity may play a key role in obesity-associated carcinogenesis and prognosis of colon cancer (12). In 1990s, Giovannucci et al proposed that prolonged high blood level of insulin is associated with

increased colon cancer incidence (13),(14). Epidemiological studies have shown that the serum level of C-peptide is associated with the increased risk of colon cancer (15)-(17). A recent prospective Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical study further demonstrated that fasting blood level of insulin is positively correlated with waist circumference and colon cancer (18). This hypothesis has been demonstrated in animal models. Administration of insulin increased colon cancer cell proliferation and polyp formation in Azoxymethane (AOM)-induced cancer model (19),(20). High level of plasma insulin has also been demonstrated to click here significantly increase the formation of aberrant crypt foci in obese rat model with injection of AOM (21). Insulin can stimulate PI3K/Akt activity to increase the carcinogenesis of colon cancer (9). The activation of PI3K/Akt pathway can increase cell survival, cell growth and proliferation (22)-(24). In addition, insulin can also increase IGF-1 (insulin-growth factor -1) by inhibiting production of IGFBPs 1, 2 and 3 (insulin-like growth factor binding proteins) (25). IGF-1 binds to both insulin and IGF-1 receptors to stimulate PI3K/Akt activity (25).

However, besides the obvious progress in research that could only

However, besides the obvious progress in research that could only be achieved because of the existence of these models,

one also has to bear in mind that each animal model has its pros and cons. Currently, it appears that the use of several models, either successively or in parallel, provides the greatest chance to elucidate the neurobiological processes of psychiatric diseases and to identify new, effective antidepressant and anxiolytic compounds.
For #Sorafenib cell line keyword# more than 50 years, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been the only nonpharmacological, somatic treatment of psychiatric disorders in widespread clinical use. Other modalities, such as insulin coma therapy, were used for varying periods, but no longer have Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical any place in clinical psychiatry. This situation is now changing. Brain stimulation techniques are rapidly becoming a highly promising novel avenue for treatment of psychiatric disorders in general, and major depression in particular. Research in this field is at a very important juncture, and there are signs that the first two decades of the current millennium could well be the decades of brain

stimulation in psychiatry. Several different approaches are under study. Some have the potential to cross the threshold to clinical use, while others are still at a very limited stage of application in the research context Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical only. In this review, we will consider several novel brain stimulation techniques for the treatment of depression:

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetic seizure therapy (MST), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). A comprehensive evaluation of each modality is not possible in this context. We will provide an overview of key aspects of each treatment such as its development, technique, application in major depression, adverse effects, and putative mechanism(s) of action. The novel brain stimulation modalities will be discussed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on the background of a wider consideration of ECT, which is used 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase extensively and has been the focus of intensive basic and clinical research for several decades. Electroconvulsive therapy Development of ECT The production of epileptiform convulsions as a treatment for psychiatric illness was introduced in 1934 by the Hungarian psychiatrist, Laszlo Meduna.1 The first treatments were drug-induced convulsions.2 A few years later, electrical seizure induction was introduced by Cerletti and Bini in Rome.3,4 The introduction of antidepressant drugs during the 1950s and 1960s reduced the use of ECT as a first-line therapy for depression. Nevertheless, ECT is still the treatment of choice in pharmacotherapy-resistant cases. Although ECT is considered effective and safe, it continues to be regarded with suspicion by much of the public and the medical profession.

Filamin C The FLNC gene codify for the muscle-specific filamin i

Filamin C The FLNC gene codify for the muscle-specific filamin isoform. It is involved in a form of autosomal dominant myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) described by Vorgerd et al. in 2005 (27). Patients presented with slow progressive skeletal-muscle weakness, beginning in the lower extremities, which is compatible with the clinical signs of LGMD. ZASP Z-band alternatively spliced PDZ-motif containing protein is a sarcomeric protein expressed in human cardiac

and skeletal muscle at the Z-disk (28). Several mutations in ZASP gene have been Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical identified as responsible for different dominant disorders: MFM and dilated cardiomyopathy (29–31). The clinical phenotype in patients is heterogeneous, with variable age of onset, proximal or distal presentation and variable occurrence of cardiomyopathy. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Kinectin 1 It is a 160kDa transmembrane protein located on the cytoplasmic vesicles of the endoplasmic reticulum. This is probably present on the vesicles that operate the transport of proteins from the endoplasmic

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Protease Inhibitor Library concentration reticulum to the Golgi. It may mediate the binding between kinesin and vesicle membrane to be transported (32). To date no disease has been linked to mutation in kinectin 1 gene. Enolase 3-b The enolase enzyme catalyze the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate into 2-phosphoenolpyruvate, and the beta isoform is muscle specific. In 2001, Comi et al. (33) described a patient with a metabolic myopathy showing myalgia, fatigue Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and stress-induced weakness. This patient resulted compound heterozygous for two missense mutations in ENO3 gene. TRIM11 and TRIM17 These are two small cytosolic proteins belonging to tripartite motif containing protein family (TRIM) as the muscular dystrophy 2H gene TRIM32. The two genes map at

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical chromosome 1 in the critical region for the congenital muscular dystrophy 1B (MDC1B, OMIM #604801). The disease is characterized by proximal muscle weakness with hypertrophy, respiratory failure and increased CK serum levels. ζ-sarcoglycan It is a well known gene whose protein product belongs to sarcoglycans protein family (34). It has been demonstrated its ability to form an alternative complex with α, β and δ in different tissues if γ-sarcoglycan Cell press is absent. Four sarcoglycans gene are mutated in LGMDs (α, β, γ and δ) and ε- is the gene mutated in the myoclonic dystonic syndrome (DYT11, 35). OZZ It is a small muscle specific protein and is a member of SOCS proteins family. In 2004, Nastasi et al. demonstrated the involvement of OZZ in an active E3-ligase complex in which β-catenin serves as substrate in vivo. OZZ knock-out mice show a muscle phenotype with an increased nuclei centralization and misalignment of myofibrils (36). Mutation scanning We analyzed all coding exons and flanking introns and verified whether each variation was present in DB-SNP (NCBI) or not.

Several patients who, according to the department nurse, were can

Several patients who, according to the department nurse, were candidates for the study died after discharge from the intensive care unit. Thus, the criteria for discharge were changed to between 3 and 12 months. Participants had been used to managing on their own before the admission to hospital. During the stay at the intensive care unit they needed comprehensive help “for everything.” In time things developed, especially for participant 2, who said that she was able to eat by herself during the last course of the admission. Participants have had difficulties this website recalling the time at the intensive care unit and to

make coherent narratives. Participant 3 had difficulty distinguishing dreams from reality and episodes from the bed ward and the intensive care unit. It was BMN 673 possible to exclude parts of the interview due to knowledge of the special characteristics of the intensive care unit. It did not have any immediate consequence for the number of recollections when participants were interviewed; this is in line with research in the area (Löf, Berggren, & Ahlström, 2006). Materiel

and data analysis The interview guide contained the themes dependency in relation to understanding of self, dependency in relation to time, bodily experiences linked to dependency, and experiences in relation to the nurse. Questions linked to the themes were, for example: Tell me about what it meant for you to be dependent on others help (thoughts, feelings), Did your perceived experience changed during the stay at the ICU?, How did you feel your body? Tell me about an important situation related to the collaboration with a nurse. Themes and questions were based on the literature review. An analysis of the concept “care dependency” (Boggatz, Dijkstra, Lohrmann, & Dassen, 2007) inspired the questions as they recommend Electron transport chain that the empirical studies should include questions about the patients’ functional

limitations. The guide functioned as an indicator. Above all, it was the patients’ narratives and experiences that were followed. The interviews lasted between 45 and 60 min and were recorded on an audio file and transcribed verbatim and decontextualized to a text. The findings appeared through analysis and interpretation of the text, which was carried out on three levels: a naive reading, a structural analysis, and an interpreted whole which can increase, change, or broaden the understanding. This means that it is a continuous process from what is said to what is talked about to which the meaning of what is said can refer. In the naive reading, the text was read several times to grasp its meaning as a whole (Lindseth & Norberg, 2004). This demanded a phenomenological approach where the researcher is open to what the text says and become influenced and moved by it.

Transmission of ultrasound images to the emergency department has

Transmission of ultrasound images to the emergency department has also been described as a possible advantage of prehospital ultrasound [26-28]. While these indications for prehospital ultrasound have

been described in the literature, little is known about how EMS services are actually using this technology in the field. We suspect Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical there is significant variation in the adoption of prehospital ultrasound and the perception of indications for its use. We expect that rural services, those with long transport times, and those utilizing air-transport, will be the most common users of prehospital ultrasound. The objective of our study is to describe in detail how ultrasound is currently being used by EMS services in North America. Methods This Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical study was a cross-sectional convenience selleck survey distributed via mail to EMS directors in Canada and the United States. Recipients were identified using the National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) mailing list and we Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical obtained permission to distribute the survey to NAEMSP members. The University of Calgary Conjoint Health Research Ethics Board approved this study (Ethics ID 24183). The survey consisted of

a single mail out and respondents had the option to complete the enclosed paper-based survey or an on-line version of the survey for which the link was provided. The inclusion criteria for the study were: the survey was to be completed by a medical director of an Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical EMS system, and the EMS system provided prehospital care in Canada or the United States of America. The main survey consisted of two sections. The first

section of the survey consisted of questions that focused on describing the EMS systems of each organization. In the second section, we asked targeted questions based on whether or not the EMS service is using ultrasound. We calculated proportions of respondents Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that gave a specific answer to each question and their 95% confidence interval based on a population size of EMS medical directors of 755, the number of NAEMSP medical directors receiving the survey. This number was calculated by subtracting the undeliverable surveys from the total number Mephenoxalone of surveys sent out. We analyzed each question of the survey independently based on the number of respondents to the question. We compared the characteristics of EMS systems using ultrasound to all responding EMS systems using Fisher’s Exact Test for categorical and binary variables. Results We mailed 766 surveys to EMS medical directors. 11 were returned undeliverable. Of the 755 deliverable surveys, 156 completed the paper-based survey and 69 completed the online survey for a response rate of 30%. Characteristics of the EMS systems are presented in Table 1.

Lifestyle such as heavy weight lifting as a result of trading, fa

Lifestyle such as heavy weight lifting as a result of trading, farming, carrying firewood, water or even the many babies delivered and chronic cough due to tuberculosis, bronchitis or asthma. Other diseases include chronic constipation, ascites, intra-abdominal masses. Any condition that increases pressure in the abdomen and affect the physical load on the

ON-01910 in vivo pelvic floor or integrity of the muscular and connective tissues of the pelvis increases the likelihood that symptomatic prolapsed will develop.5 A study of pelvic organ prolapse done in a rural community in southern Ghana shows a prevalence rate of 12.07%6 however the exact burden of pelvic organ prolapses across

the entire country is unknown. The prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse in northern and southern parts of Ghana particularly the urban areas are not expected to be same because of differences in occupational, socio-cultural factors, CDK inhibitor access and use of health facilities between the two parts of the country.4 Pelvic organ prolapse negatively affects socioeconomic and reproductive activity of affected women; it is therefore of interest to study the condition and the affected women from all over the northern region presenting to the Tamale Teaching hospital. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, social demographic characteristics and types of pelvic organ prolapse seen at the Tamale Teaching hospital during the two year study period. Some recommendations could be made which may positively modify behavior and practice.

Subjects only and Methods This is a descriptive study of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) at the Tamale Teaching Hospital in the Northern Region of Ghana from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2011. The needed data were collected using a form designed to capture the social demographic characteristics, reproductive history and pelvic examination findings of patients with pelvic organ prolapse seen at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of the Hospital during the study period. After explaining the objective of the study, the questionnaires were translated to the patients mainly in a local language to their understanding. Members of the research team made up of doctors and nurses daily during clinic visits and at the time of admission to the gynaecology ward administered the questionnaires. Difficulties with retrieval of folders for retrospective studies and incomplete data entries in the manual system of keeping information on patients were not encountered. Confirmation and reconciliation of some of the data were done using records from the Gynaecology clinic, the major surgical log book in the operating theatre and the wards.

Studies identified in electronic databases were distinguished on

Studies identified in electronic databases were distinguished on the basis of their methodology in studies investigating acute cognitive effects versus studies investigating RAD001 mw chronic cognitive

effects. Studies investigating acute cognitive effects adopt a methodology of comparing cognitive performances in ‘on’ and ‘off’ conditions: ‘on’ condition means that patients take their dopaminergic medication and then are tested, while ‘off’ condition means that patients are tested when they have abstained from dopaminergic medication for a minimum of hours (usually at least 12 hours). Studies Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical investigating chronic cognitive effects adopt a methodology of a longitudinal assessment of patients. Results The systematic review of electronic databases identified 22 studies designed to assess

the cognitive effects of acute Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical dopaminergic stimulation in PD patients and 3 studies designed to assess the cognitive effects of chronic dopaminergic stimulation. Acute dopaminergic stimulation The main empirical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical findings of the 21 studies investigating cognitive effects of acute dopaminergic stimulation on PD patients are summarized in Table 1. A preliminary survey identified two common characteristics among these studies. First, almost all studies investigated the acute cognitive effects comparing performances of patients ‘on’ and ‘off’ dopaminergic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical therapies.

Second, considering the main role played by the dopaminergic systems on executive functions, almost all studies investigated the cognitive effects of dopaminergic therapies exclusively on them Table 1. Studies investigating acute cognitive effects of levodopa and dopamine agonists in early and moderate PD patients. Results of these studies have to be evaluated considering the spatiotemporal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical progression of dopamine depletion within the striatum. In the early stages of PD the dopamine depletion is greatest (to a maximum of about 90%) in the most dorsolateral Histamine H2 receptor extent of the head of the caudate nucleus, producing a dysfunction of the dorsolateral frontostriatal circuit, while the orbital circuit is almost preserved; only in more advanced stages of the disease the orbital frontostriatal circuit is affected by dopamine depletion. This spatiotemporal difference in dopamine depletion at the striatal level explains why the effect of dopaminergic drugs is not linearly correlated with cognition. One of the first studies on the effects of levodopa on cognitive functions of PD patients demonstrated the enhancement induced by levodopa on performances in executive tasks of verbal and visuospatial working memory and categorization (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) [Kulisevsky et al. 1996].