, 2010) For the latter possibility,

Na-Cl water could ha

, 2010). For the latter possibility,

Na-Cl water could have been present in shallow groundwater as a result of natural hydraulic connections to underlying strata and the idea of such connections is supported by the documentation of natural fractures (Jacobi, 2002), particularly J1 and J2 joint sets, in the Geneseo Shale (of the Genesee Group) which underlies the western portion of the county (Fig. 1) (Engelder et al., 2009). The lack of differences in methane concentrations across Pifithrin-�� mw different bedrock formations in which water wells were finished also supports the possibility that methane-rich Na-Cl water is migrating from deeper formations. In either case, this water chemistry is indicative of increased interaction with bedrock and less contribution of meteoric (precipitation-derived) water that would have infiltrated through overlying calcareous sediments (Fleisher, 1993). This extended residence time and potential interaction

with methane-rich strata (e.g. black shale) could have led to relatively higher methane concentrations (Molofsky et al., 2013). The Na-HCO3 groundwater and its associated dissolved methane likely resulted from groundwater residence time and rock-water interaction as well as redox processes. Longer residence times typically lead to increased concentrations of Na and HCO3 due to cation exchange between calcium and sodium Decitabine mw clonidine and oxidation of organic matter, and can also promote biological methane production as oxygen is used up and methanogenesis is thermodynamically favored (Kresse et al., 2012 and Thorstenson and Fisher, 1979). The methane isotopic signatures also support the presence of some microbial methane, with the majority of δ13C-CH4 values falling between −40 and −60‰, indicating likely mixing of biogenic and thermogenic methane (Whiticar, 1999). To better predict patterns in dissolved methane, it is useful to model the relationship between methane and readily

measurable environmental parameters. Such parameters could be GIS-derived characteristics described in previous sections or water quality and geochemical characteristics like specific conductance or sodium concentration. It is also important that such parameters be continuous, rather than classifications like ‘valley’ vs. ‘upslope’. Table 2 displays the results of the best multivariate regression models using selected variables from the full suite of landscape and chemical parameters. An initial model was developed using nine variables that were selected based on their Pearson correlation with methane. Using the six variables found to be significant (p < 0.05) – hardness, barium, chloride, sodium, sulfate and distance from active gas wells – a regression model was created that could explain 82% of variation in observed methane patterns (Fig. S3).

A diagnostic scoring cutoff set at 3 standard deviations above th

A diagnostic scoring cutoff set at 3 standard deviations above the mean for the normal patient selleck chemicals llc cohort yielded 11% sensitivity for colorectal cancer detection at 100% specificity with these samples. This method of setting cutoffs is commonly used for autoantibody immunoassays (e.g. Liu et al., 2009). Next, to technically validate the VeraCode™ bead assay using the p53 TAA,

we evaluated the data obtained from screening the same patient cohort against beads to which either purified recombinant p53 or cell-free produced p53 was attached (Fig. 2, middle and bottom panels, respectively). The cutoff and scoring were done as with the ELISA. The error bars represent the intra-assay bead-to-bead variance in fluorescence intensity within CDK inhibitor each sample-protein pair (i.e. variance of replicate beads). Results from ELISA were compared to results obtained from VeraCode™ beads. All 5 colorectal cancer samples which scored positive in the ELISA also score positive on both VeraCode™ bead assays (with both recombinant and cell-free p53 protein). In addition, two additional hits in the CRC cohort were detected by the VeraCode™ assay (same two patients detected with both recombinant

and cell-free proteins) but 100% specificity versus the normal patients was maintained. In order to establish intra-assay precision, we performed the multiplex bead assay on triplicate samples of four CRC and four normal patient sera/plasma in a 96-well plate. Two TAAs were used in this multiplexed experiment: The p53 control (discussed earlier) and Cyclin B1 (Koziol et al., 2003, Chen et al., 2007 and Reuschenbach et al., 2009). Each of the three replicate wells of each sample contained approximately 50 beads per TAA. Two previously known p53-positive sera (based on ELISA and VeraCode™ data

in Fig. 2) were chosen for this experiment, whereas their sero-reactivity against CyclinB1 was not known a priori (i.e. positives not necessarily expected based on low diagnostic sensitivity of individual ID-8 TAAs). Results are shown in Supplementary Fig. 2. An average intra-assay CV of 10% across all samples and proteins was achieved (see error bars in Supplementary Fig. 2 for more detail). The diagnostic scoring cutoff for p53 was calculated based on the normal samples as discussed earlier, however, for maximum stringency, the calculations were done before averaging the MFI values of the replicate samples (MFI = Mean Fluorescence Intensity; i.e. mean of all beads within one sample per TAA). With this, the scoring cutoff accounts for variance across the sample replicates. Of note, using this cutoff, previously known p53-positive samples were correctly detected in this VeraCode™ bead experiment, with no false positives (neither in CRC nor normal samples).

The ecosystem model ERGOM-MOM is an integrated biogeochemical

The ecosystem model ERGOM-MOM is an integrated biogeochemical

model linked to a 3D circulation model covering the entire Baltic Sea. A horizontal resolution of 1 nautical mile (nm) is applied in the western Baltic Sea and in inner and outer coastal waters. The vertical water column is sub-divided into layers with a thickness of 2 m. The biogeochemical model consists of nine state variables. This model is coupled with the circulation model via advection diffusion equations for the state variables. The nutrient variables are dissolved ammonium, nitrate and phosphate. Primary production is represented by three functional phytoplankton groups: large cells, CB-839 order small cells and nitrogen fixers. A dynamically developing bulk zooplankton variable provides grazing pressure on

the phytoplankton. Accumulated dead particles are represented in a detritus state variable. During the process of sedimentation a portion of the detritus is mineralized into dissolved ammonium and phosphate. Another portion reaches the sea bottom where it accumulates as sedimentary detritus and is subsequently buried, mineralized or resuspended in the water column. Under oxic conditions parts of phosphate are bound to iron oxides in the sediment, but can be mobilized under anoxic conditions. Oxygen concentrations are calculated from biogeochemical processes via stoichiometric ratios and control processes such as denitrification and nitrification. Neumann Methocarbamol [35], Neumann et al. [36] and Neumann and Schernewski JAK/stat pathway [37] provide detailed model descriptions and validations.

Recent comparative studies [19], [30] and [20] proved that the biogeochemical model ERGOM is sufficiently reliable in the western Baltic Sea and suitable for scenario simulations. Weather data for the present time were taken from the Rossby Center Atmosphere model RCA3.0 on the basis of ERA-40 [28]. For the historical simulations the weather reconstruction of Schenk and Zorita [43] was used. Riverine nutrient input for 1970–2000 was provided by the Baltic Nest Institute (BNI) including 80 catchment areas around the Baltic Sea. After 2000 the official HELCOM Pollution Load Compilation (PLC-5) data [23] for riverine nutrient input was used. Since PLC provides only aggregated country-wise data for the nine Baltic Sea basins, the country loads were allocated according to the share of each river in BNI data. The historic nutrient loads of 16 main Baltic rivers, outside Germany, were reconstructed by following the approach of Gustafsson et al. [21] and all loads attributed to these rivers. The atmospheric nutrient input was computed by distributing the loads taken from Ruoho-Airola et al. [40] for every sub-region including a decline towards the open sea.

, 2008) These

different tissue responses have been inves

, 2008). These

different tissue responses have been investigated under different in vitro and in vivo models in order to understand the local cytotoxicity and the systemic effects of the complex mixture of snake venoms ( Gutierrez et al., 1986; Sanchez et al., 1992; Melo et al., 1993; Melo and Ownby, 1999; Murakami et al., 2005; Teixeira et al., 2009; Escalante et al., 2011). The recommended therapy to snakebite envenomation has been based on the administration of animal-derived antivenom that can ameliorate and stop many of the venom effects (da Silva et al., 2007; Gutierrez et al., 2007, Gutierrez et al., 2011a and Gutierrez et al., 2011b). However, the local response induced by Bothrops snake venoms is described as being only partially neutralized by either the specific or the polyvalent antivenom even if the antivenom IOX1 is locally injected ( Chaves et al., 2003; da Silva et al., 2007; Gutierrez et al., 2007 and Gutierrez et al.,

2011a). The problem is bigger when the therapy is delayed for many different reasons, such as geographical problems or lack of accessibility to the antivenom ( Chippaux, 1998; Pardal et al., 2004; Gutierrez et al., 2007). In many rural areas in Brazil or elsewhere in the world where the antivenom is not easily available, local people use folk medicine such herbal preparations in the snakebite treatment, trying to interrupt the venom effects ( Martz, 1992; Mors et al., 2000; Coe and Anderson, 2005). When it is available, the use of antivenom can still elicit different reactions once they are animal-derived products. The local venom effects are poorly understood, and although many studies have been trying to develop new substances Lumacaftor able to stop or antagonize the powerful local inflammatory response induced by Bothrops venoms, which involves cytokines and white blood cells, it is still a challenge ( Lomonte et al., 1993; Olivo et al., 2007; Gutierrez et al., 2007; Melo et al., 2010). It has been difficult to develop new drugs for snakebite envenoming treatment, either from plants or from new planed synthetic molecules, because they are

not attractive to developed countries nor to big companies once they will not return the investment Parvulin and the endeavor ( Gutierrez et al., 2007; Lomonte et al., 2009). The local myonecrosis and inflammatory response are critical to late disabilities (Gutierrez et al., 1986; Rucavado and Lomonte, 1996; Teixeira et al., 2009), but even the well-known substances used for the treatment of allergic reactions induced by antivenom treatment are not frequently investigated for their anti-inflammatory activities (Chen et al., 2007; Olivo et al., 2007; Thiansookon and Rojnuckarin, 2008; Nascimento et al., 2010). Nascimento et al. (2010) described that dexamethasone decreased the acute inflammatory response induced by Bothrops moojeni in mice, and this observation is ascribed to the ability of dexamethasone to decrease the formation of eicosanoids in the presence of the venom.

Therefore, currently, many structural variants are still missed b

Therefore, currently, many structural variants are still missed by single-cell genome sequencing. Nevertheless, filters have been designed to permit the detection of the structural architecture of copy number alterations following mapping of paired-end sequences selleck chemicals llc ( Figure 3c) [ 27••] and approaches to detect L1-retrotransposition have been developed [ 45•]. In a recent study, we were able to discover and fine-map intra-chromosomal as well as inter-chromosomal rearrangements in single cells. Furthermore,

we performed single-cell genome sequencing of individual breast cancer cells related by one cell cycle, and detected large de novo structural DNA imbalances acquired over one cell division [ 27••], providing proof of principle that single-cell sequencing can track tumour evolution in real time. Sequencing

allows discovering single nucleotide mutations (Figure 3d). However, genuine base substitutions in the cell have to be discriminated from WGA-polymerase base infidelities and sequencing errors [20•, 26••, 42••, 46••, 47, 48 and 49]. Therefore, reliable single-nucleotide substitution detection in non-haploid loci currently necessitates sequencing of multiple single cells [20•, Doxorubicin cell line 26••, 46••, 47 and 48], or confirmation by deep-sequencing of matched bulk tissue [42••], thus posing problems for the characterization of rare cell populations. Targeted sequencing of single-cell WGA products was recently applied to investigate single-nucleotide mutations in the exome, to hunt for heterogeneity in a renal carcinoma [20•], a myeloproliferative neoplasm [46••] and a bladder cancer [47]. Although see more variant calls of at least three cells had to be considered to filter WGA and sequencing artefacts from genuine base alterations, subclonal population structure could be profiled at high accuracy,

providing insight into progression and selection processes, and understanding of the difficulty of treating cancer. Single nucleotide and indel mutational landscapes in CTCs in patients with lung cancer [44•• and 50] and colorectal cancer [42•• and 51] were recently also determined by single-cell exome and cancer gene panel re-sequencing, respectively. These studies are signalling the promise of CTC sequencing for identifying therapeutic targets and regimens for personalized treatment. Using short in vitro cultures, mutation rates have been tracked over a limited amount of cell divisions. Whole-genome sequencing of multiple WGAed cells revealed a base mutation rate in a colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line that was 10-fold higher when compared to estimates of germline studies [ 26••].

Sorgente et al (2003) used the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) to st

Sorgente et al. (2003) used the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) to study the flow through the Sicily Channel. This modelling identified two main AW veins, one in the south along the African coast and the other in the north along the Sicilian coast. Based on geostrophic calculations using CTD data from April 2003–October 2003, Ferjani & Gana (2010) indicated that the mean inflow and outflow through the western side of the Sicily Channel were 0.5 and 0.4 × 106 m3 s− 1 respectively.

Stanev et al. (2000) characterized the water exchange through the Bosphorus-Marmara-Dardanelles system as a two-layer flow, in which see more Black Sea water occupied the surface layer (average flow of 0.019 × 106 m3 s− 1) and Mediterranean water occupied the deep layer (average flow of 0.009 × 106 m3 s− 1). Recent estimates indicate a reduction in inflow of approximately 0.003 × 106 m3 s− 1, which affects the North Aegean Sea circulation (Stanev & Peneva 2002). Nixon (2003) and Ludwig et al. (2009) estimated that the average discharge of the River Nile to the Mediterranean basin after the construction of the Aswan High Dam decreased by a factor of more than two. The paper aims to: (1) examine the water exchange through the Sicily Channel, (2) calculate the long-term change in vertical temperature and salinity distribution in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, and (3) examine the heat and water balances of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin. The study

uses a simple ocean model to analyse a large set of meteorological and hydrological data used for forcing. The model simulations are validated and the main conclusions are drawn using independent selleck chemical oceanographic observations. The paper is structured as follows: section 2 presents the data and models used; section 3 presents the results, while section 4 discusses them; finally, the appendices provide a full description of the model. The study relies on the numerical modelling of the heat and water balances of the Eastern

Mediterranean Basin and the water exchange through the Sicily Channel. The present version of the model is vertically resolved and time-dependent, based on horizontally-averaged either input data over the study area and with in- and outflows controlling the vertical circulation. The meteorological data were horizontally averaged using linear interpolation over the EMB to describe the general features of the forcing data. Exchange through the Sicily Channel was modelled using: (1) current speeds across the Sicily Channel calculated from satellite recordings, (2) evaporation rates calculated from the model, (3) observed precipitation rates, and (4) observed river data. The period studied was 1958–2009. Several data sources have been used in this study, as follows: 1. Mediterranean Sea absolute dynamic topography data from May 2006 to October 2009. These data were extracted from the Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO) database available at http://www.aviso.

Os profissionais devem verificar as ligações de todos os canais d

Os profissionais devem verificar as ligações de todos os canais de trabalho antes do início do ciclo. Cat. IB 1, 6, 8, 9, 18 and 19 A água de enxaguamento final deve ser de qualidade: livre de bactérias. this website No caso da sua utilização a seguir, o endoscópio deve ser transportado individualmente para a sala num recipiente coberto para evitar a recontaminação ou dano. No caso de não ser utilizado a seguir, as superfícies internas e externas do endoscópio devem ser secas

e o endoscópio imediatamente colocado no armário próprio. O endoscópio deve ser colocado numa tina com a solução desinfetante garantindo que fica completamente imerso na solução. Todos os canais do endoscópio devem estar completamente preenchidos com desinfetante, usando-se para o efeito adaptadores de lavagem específicos

Ipatasertib price do endoscópio, a fim de assegurar o completo contacto com o desinfetante e eliminação de espaços mortos. As válvulas e tampas devem ser desinfetadas com o respetivo endoscópio. A solução desinfetante deve ser preparada de acordo com as indicações do fabricante e deve ser utilizada cumprindo rigorosamente os tempos de contacto estabelecidos para uma desinfeção de alto nível. Se a solução é utilizada por mais do que um dia, o teor do ingrediente ativo deve ser verificado diariamente antes do início da primeira sessão ou conforme indicação do fabricante e o resultado deve ser registado. Se o nível for inferior ao indicado, a solução deve ser descartada. Cat IA 1, 6, 8, 9 and 11 Após a desinfeção de nível elevado, o endoscópio e respetivos canais devem ser enxaguados com água estéril ou filtrada para remover a solução de desinfeção. É preferível o uso de água estéril para o enxaguamento final. A água deve ser descartada após cada uso/ciclo. Se o endoscópio vai ser reutilizado a seguir, o profissional deve verificar Cell press se é necessária a secagem manual. No decorrer da secagem manual o profissional de saúde deve dar especial atenção às partes externas do

endoscópio, ao controlo do corpo de luz/conectores de vídeo, fichas e tomadas. Antes do armazenamento, os canais devem ser irrigados com álcool etílico ou isopropílico de 70% a 90% e secos com ar comprimido medicinal à pressão indicada pelo fabricante do endoscópio. Cat IA 1, 5, 6, 8, 9 and 11 Os endoscópios devem ser armazenados na posição vertical para evitar a retenção de líquido residual nos canais, e protegidos para prevenir o risco de contaminação. As partes desmontáveis devem manter-se separadas mas junto com os componentes específicos de cada endoscópio de modo a garantir a segurança do procedimento. Cat II 1, 6, 8, 9 and 11 Deve existir um procedimento documentado e datado no caso de se utilizar armário com barreira sanitária (por exemplo com indicações para a verificação do fluxo de ar filtrado, para o uso fora de horas). Os armários devem ser utilizados de acordo com as indicações do fabricante.

Aluminium salt appears to modulate and prolong the cytokine respo

Aluminium salt appears to modulate and prolong the cytokine responses to MPL at the injection site. Taken together, these results support a model where the addition of MPL to aluminium salt enhances the vaccine response by prompting increased activation of APCs and downstream enhanced stimulation of Th1 T-cell responses ( Didierlaurent et al., 2009). AS04 is currently used in two licensed vaccines (Table 4.1). The first licensed vaccine adjuvanted with AS04 was a hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine for pre-haemodialysis and haemodialysis patients, who are relatively poor responders to aluminium-adjuvanted HBV vaccine. In this target population, the vaccine formulation adjuvanted

with AS04 significantly enhances the immune response to hepatitis B antigen and induces more rapid, higher and longer lasting seroprotection

and enhanced cell-mediated immunity (CMI) compared Ibrutinib molecular weight with the aluminium-adjuvanted vaccine ( Kong et al., 2005). Similarly, the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has shown the ability to induce higher antibody levels when compared with the same antigen formulated with aluminium selleckchem salts (see case study 1, Chapter 5 – Vaccine development). Furthermore, the AS04-adjuvanted HPV vaccine provides cross-protection against certain other high-risk HPV types not contained in the vaccine ( Paavonen et al., 2009). AS03 ( Figure 4.8) is a combination of adjuvants, based on α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and squalene in an oil-in-water emulsion with a droplet diameter of 150–155 nm. It is used in pandemic

influenza vaccines ( Table 4.1). Vitamin E is a lipid-soluble antioxidant with immune-enhancing properties Dimethyl sulfoxide which is present in the human body in muscles, adipose tissues, the adrenal and pituitary glands, and pancreas. The most important function of vitamin E is to maintain the integrity of cellular membranes by protecting their physical stability, and by inhibiting tissue damage caused by oxidation. Vitamin E is exclusively synthesised in plants and found in high amounts in vegetable oils and nuts. Vitamin E is widely used in cosmetics and in foods as a dietary supplement. The vitamin E used in vaccines is of synthetic origin. Both monocytes and macrophages respond to AS03 with a local production of a range of cytokines and chemokines. Macrophages are the most likely initiators of the cytokine response, whereas recruited monocytes elicit a second wave of chemokine secretion and further innate cell recruitment (Morel et al., 2011). An AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine (Table 4.1) has been shown to allow for antigen sparing, ie less antigen is needed per vaccine dose (Leroux-Roels et al., 2007 and Roman et al., 2010). Also a high level of cross-reactive immunity to heterologous strains of H5N1 has been observed (Leroux-Roels et al., 2008).

For arsenic, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), di-2(ethylhex

For arsenic, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), di-2(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), descriptive statistics were calculated based upon the sum of the appropriate biomarkers according to the requirements of the screening values (ANSES, 2010, Aylward and Hays, 2011, Aylward et al., 2009b and Hays et al., 2010). Biomarker concentrations below the limit

of detection (LOD) were assigned a value of LOD/2, except for concentrations of DDT biomarkers below the LOD which were assigned a value of zero to avoid overestimation as DDT was detected in only a small portion of the population (Statistics Canada, 2011 and Statistics Canada, 2013). Pooled biomonitoring data for HBCD, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated Dinaciclib clinical trial dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) were obtained from Rawn

et al., 2012 and Rawn et al., 2013. Sub-population analyses by age, sex, or smoking status were only conducted where relevance was suggested by existing information. In the case of cadmium, smoking has been identified as a major source of exposure (Environment Canada, 1994, Health Canada, 1994a and IARC, 2012) and therefore, descriptive statistics for cadmium in sub-populations of smokers and non-smokers were calculated. Smoking status was defined in terms of urinary cotinine concentrations, with smokers defined as those with concentrations exceeding 50 ng/ml, as recommended by the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT Subcommittee on Biochemical Verification 2002). No attempt was made to comprehensively assess trends with smoking, sex, Selleckchem CDK inhibitor or age across all the chemicals in the analyses. BEs are based on exposure guidance values established by government agencies, such as Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), or the World Health Organization (WHO) (Hays et al., 2007 and Hays et al., 2008a). Biomarkers selected for this analysis Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase are presented in Table 1. BE values based upon

risk specific doses from cancer risk assessments (i.e., BERSD) were available for three biomarkers: arsenic, DDT, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and are presented in Table 5 (Aylward et al., 2010, Hays et al., 2010 and Kirman et al., 2011). The methods for deriving BEs are reviewed in Angerer et al. (2011). For interpreting CHMS biomarkers, BE values based on Health Canada exposure guidance values were favored. When these values were not available, BEs based on risk assessment values from U.S. EPA or other international health organizations were selected. A provisional BE value was identified for HBCD (Aylward and Hays, 2011). Provisional values are derived based on the point of departure from Health Canada screening and risk assessments in the absence of established exposure guidance values. A concentration of concern was identified for PCBs (ANSES, 2010).

These mean RTs are shown in Fig  6A The expected location congru

These mean RTs are shown in Fig. 6A. The expected location congruency effects were observed: responses were fastest when the target appeared in a location that was congruent with the required response, and slowest when the target

appeared in a location that was congruent with the response opposite that required to the target incongruent condition; [F(2, 627) = 7.37, p = .001]. Also, as expected, responses made with the left (non-alien) hand were significantly faster than responses made with the right (alien) hand [F(1, 627) = 51.12, p < .001]. Importantly, the interaction between the effects of hand and congruency did not approach statistical significance [F(2, 627) < 1]. As noted above, a delta plot can Alpelisib price be a more sensitive way of examining RT effects than comparing average RTs. Therefore, we have plotted the spatial congruency effect (incongruent RT − congruent RT) over 8 RT bins (see Fig. 6B) according to the procedures described above. The pattern of spatial congruency effects was similar for both hands, and the effect did not reach significance at the beginning or end of the distribution for either hand.3 In summary, there is no evidence that the spatial congruency effects on RT were different

for the alien and non-alien hand. Error responses were detected in 9.8% of all trials in the Masked Priming task. Table 2 shows how many ABT-199 ic50 trials of each type (divided by prime-target SOA, prime-target compatibility, and location-target

congruence) contained an erroneous response (out of a maximum of 28 trials in each cell). Note that trial types are divided according to the correct response, so for example an error occurring on a prime incompatible trial means that the prime was incompatible with the correct response Cyclooxygenase (COX) required to the target (and so primed a response in the incorrect hand). As shown in Table 2, most errors were observed in the right (alien) hand in response to a target requiring a left hand response (62/66 errors were of this type). These errors were more frequent when the target was in the incongruent (i.e., rightward) location – suggesting that the patient might have been responding to the location of the target rather than to its identity. The pattern of errors suggests that there may have been a hint of an interaction between the effects of hand and spatial congruency on error rates. However, as there were so few errors detected in the left (non-alien) hand, we cannot meaningfully compare erroneous left- and right-hand responses in different conditions. Continuous force responses from both hands of a single patient with AHS due to CBS were measured while she completed two experimental tasks designed to investigate automatic action priming and control. The results presented here show two potentially theoretically important findings.